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NCEA PE Home
PE: Year Levels
Level 3 NCEA
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Assessment Terms and Definitions
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NCEA Physical Education Achievement Standards
Aerobic and Anaerobic Fitness
Adaptations in Skeletal Muscle
Methods of Training
Principles of Training
Level 1 Anatomy
BBC - Interactive Body Games
How Muscles Work
B......... PE Muscles.ppt
Classroom Powerpoint on the Action of Muscles in the Human body.
Check out this powerpoint that introduces you to the role and function of the muscles in the body.
Adjusting angle between two parts
- Bending movement that
the angle between two parts. Bending the
, or clenching a hand into a
, are examples of flexion. When sitting down, the knees are flexed. Flexion of the hip or shoulder moves the limb forward (towards the
side of the body).
- The opposite of flexion; a straightening movement that
the angle between body parts. In a conventional handshake, the fingers are fully extended. When standing up, the knees are extended. Extension of the hip or shoulder moves the limb backward (towards the posterior side of the body).
is initiated by an electrical charge from the central nervous system. The exercise that causes the greatest amount of electrical activity within the
group will potential produce the greatest gains in mass and
. Lorenzo Cornacchia conducted a series of Electromyographic (EMG) tests to determine which exercises generated a high level of stimulation with in each muscle group. The results were as follows:
Decline dumbbell bench press
Incline dumbbell bench press
Standing dumbbell side laterals
Standing dumbbell bent laterals
Standing front dumbbell raises
Incline seated dumbbell curls (alternate)
Triceps press down (angled bar)
One arm dumbbell rows (alternate)
Seated leg extensions
Standing leg curls
Seated leg curls
Standing one leg calf raises
Table adapted from: Serious Strength Training, Tudor O. Bompa et al. 1998, Human Kinetics,
Table 11.1 IEMG max motor-unit activation
Different strength types and how to train for them
Most sports will require some or all of the following strength types to be developed to one degree or another and the weight training program should reflect this.
The aim is to develop muscles that are able to to produce repeated contractions under conditions of fatigue. This requires high repetitions (15+) with light loading (30-50% of 1RM). Appropriate for field sports, rowing and martial arts.
The aim is to develop fast powerful movements. This requires medium number of repetitions (6-10) with medium to heavy loading (70-80% of 1RM). Appropriate for power based events e.g. sprinting, jumping (long jump), throwing (Javelin).
The aim is to enable maximum loads to be lifted. This requires low number of repetitions (1-5) with heavy loads (80-100% of 1RM). Appropriate for Power Lifting, Olympic Lifting, Shot Putt.
Size with strength
The aim is to increase muscle size. This requires medium to high number of repetitions (8-12) with medium to heavy loading (70-80%+ of 1RM). Appropriate for Bodybuilding or sports like USA football where increased size is a valuable asset.
The amount of weight to be used should be based on a percentage of the
maximum amount of weight that can be lifted one time
, generally referred to as one repetition maximum (1RM). The maximum number of repetitions performed before fatigue prohibits the completion of an additional repetition is a function of the weight used, referred to as repetition maximum (RM), and reflects the intensity of the exercise. A weight load that produces fatigue on the third repetition is termed a three repetition maximum (3RM) and corresponds to approximately 95% of the weight that could be lifted for 1RM.
For maximum results, athletes should train according to their genetic predisposition. An athlete with a greater proportion of
slow twitch muscles
would adapt better to endurance training and a muscular endurance program using more repetitions of a lighter weight. An athlete with a greater proportion of fast twitch muscles would benefit from sprint training and a muscular strength program using fewer repetitions of a heavier weight. Dr F. Hatfield's
Muscle Fibre Test
may help you determine your predominate muscle type.
Load - Repetition Relationship
The strength training zone requires you to use loads in the range of 60% to 100% of 1RM. The relationship of percentage loads to number of repetitions (rounded up) to failure is as follows:
The number of repetitions performed to fatigue is an important consideration in designing a strength training program. The greatest strength gains appear to result from working with 4-6RM. Increasing this to 12-20RM favours the increase in muscle endurance and mass.
One set of 4-6RM performed 3 days a week is a typical strength training program. The optimal number of sets of an exercise to develop muscle strength remains controversial. In a number of studies comparing multiple set programs to produce greater strength gains than a single set, the majority of studies indicate that there is not a significant difference.
Handling heavy weights in the pursuit of strength will require a recovery of 3-5 minutes between sets, but only minimum recovery should be taken if strength endurance is the aim. The majority of athletic events are fast and dynamic, and therefore this quality must be reflected in the athlete's strength work.
Muscular strength is primarily developed when 8RM or less is used in a set. How much load you use depends upon what it is you wish to develop:
1RM to 3RM - neuromuscular strength
4RM to 6RM - maximum strength by stimulating muscle hypertrophy
6RM to 12RM - muscle size (hypertrophy) with moderate gains in strength (Fleck & Kraemer, 1996)
12RM to 20RM - muscle size and endurance
Rest Interval between sets
The aim of the recovery period between sets is to replenish the stores of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) and Creatine Phosphate (CP) in the muscles. An inadequate recovery means more reliance on the
in the next set. Several factors influence the recovery period, including:
Type of strength you are developing
The load used in the exercise
Number of muscle groups used in the exercise
A recovery of three to five minutes or longer will allow almost the complete restoration of ATP/CP.
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